Storing data non-contiguously on disk is known as fragmentation. Before learning to eliminate fragmentation, you should have a clear understanding of the types of fragmentation. When records are stored non-contiguously inside the page, then it is called internal fragmentation. When on disk, the physical storage of pages and extents is not contiguous. We can get both types of fragmentation using the DMV: sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats.
Here is the generic advice for reducing the fragmentation. If avg_fragmentation_in_percent > 5% and < 30%, then use ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE: This statement is replacement for DBCC INDEXDEFRAG to reorder the leaf level pages of the index in a logical order. As this is an online operation, the index is available while the statement is running. If avg_fragmentation_in_percent > 30%, then use ALTER INDEX REBUILD: This is replacement for DBCC DBREINDEX to rebuild the index online or offline. In such case, we can also use the drop and re-create index method.(Ref: MSDN)
Here is quick video which covers many of the above mentioned topics.
While Vinod and I were planning about Indexing course, we had plenty of fun and learning. We often recording few of our statement and just left it aside. Afterwords we thought it will be really funny Here is funny video shot by Vinod and Myself on the same subject:
Here is the link to the SQL Server Performance: Indexing Basics.
Here is the additional reading material on the same subject:
SQL SERVER – Fragmentation – Detect Fragmentation and Eliminate Fragmentation
SQL SERVER – 2005 – Display Fragmentation Information of Data and Indexes of Database Table
SQL SERVER – De-fragmentation of Database at Operating System to Improve Performance
Reference: Pinal Dave (https://blog.sqlauthority.com)