SQL – What ACID stands in the Database? – Contest to Win 24 Amazon Gift Cards and Joes 2 Pros 2012 Kit

We love puzzles. One of the brain’s main task is to solve puzzles. Sometime puzzles are very complicated (e.g Solving Rubik Cube or Sodoku)  and sometimes the puzzles are very simple (multiplying 4 by 8 or finding the shortest route while driving). It is always to solve puzzle and it creates an experience which humans are not able to forget easily. The best puzzles are the one where one has to do multiple things to reach to the final goal. Let us do something similar today. We will have a contest where you can participate and win something interesting.

Contest

This contest have two parts.

Question 1: What ACID stands in the Database?

This question seems very easy but here is the twist. Your answer should explain minimum one of the properties of the ACID in detail. If you wish you can explain all the four properties of the ACID but to qualify you need to explain minimum of the one properties.

Question 2: What is the size of the installation file of NuoDB for any specific platform.

You can answer this question following format – NuoDB installation file is of size __ MB for ___ Platform.

Click on the Download the Link and download your installation file for NuoDB. You can post figure out the file size from the properties of the file.

We have exciting content prizes for the winners.

Prizes

1) 24 Amazon Gift Cards of USD 10 for next 24 hours. One card at every hour. (Open anywhere in the world)

2) One grand winner will get Joes 2 Pros SQL Server 2012 Training Kit worth USD 249. (Open where Amazon ship books).

Amazon | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 

Rules

The contest will be open till July 21, 2013. All the valid comments will be hidden till the result is announced.

The winners will be announced on July 24, 2013.

Hint: Download NuoDB 

Reference: Pinal Dave (http://blog.sqlauthority.com)

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50 thoughts on “SQL – What ACID stands in the Database? – Contest to Win 24 Amazon Gift Cards and Joes 2 Pros 2012 Kit

  1. ACID stands for: atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability.
    Consistency: Once the data has been successfully applied, or rolled back to the original state, all the data must remain in a consistent state, and the data must still maintain its integrity.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.

  2. Atomicity dictates that all database transactions must fully succeed or the entire transaction fails.

    Consistency ensures that the database only accepts valid data. The rule of consistency will enforce transaction integrity or roll back the transaction of any portion of the data does not adhere to the database specifications.

    Isolation ensures that one transaction is unable to case a consistency issue from the data set of another.

    Durability protects the database from data loss. It covers the ability to do database backups and transaction log backups.

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform

  3. Please find my answers to questions below:

    Q1:

    ACID in database can be quoted as: (Ä)nyone (C)onsistent (I)n (D)eveloping Durable E-R driven databases.

    Actually, ACID stands for Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, Durable for a database.

    Q2:

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for x64 Platform.

  4. Question 1: What ACID stands in the Database?

    Answer 1:
    ACID properties are an important concept for databases. The acronym stands for Atomicity,
    Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.

    The ACID properties of a DBMS allow safe sharing of data. Without these ACID properties,
    everyday occurrences such using computer systems to buy products would be difficult
    and the potential for inaccuracy would be huge. Imagine more than one person trying
    to buy the same size and color of a sweater at the same time — a regular occurrence.
    The ACID properties make it possible for the merchant to keep these sweater purchasing
    transactions from overlapping each other — saving the merchant from erroneous inventory
    and account balances.

    Atomicity

    The phrase “all or nothing” succinctly describes the first ACID property of atomicity.
    When an update occurs to a database, either all or none of the update becomes available
    to anyone beyond the user or application performing the update. This update to the
    database is called a transaction and it either commits or aborts. This means that
    only a fragment of the update cannot be placed into the database, should a problem
    occur with either the hardware or the software involved. Features to consider for
    atomicity:
    a transaction is a unit of operation – either all the transaction’s actions are
    completed or none are
    atomicity is maintained in the presence of deadlocks
    atomicity is maintained in the presence of database software failures
    atomicity is maintained in the presence of application software failures
    atomicity is maintained in the presence of CPU failures
    atomicity is maintained in the presence of disk failures
    atomicity can be turned off at the system level
    atomicity can be turned off at the session level

    Consistency

    Consistency is the ACID property that ensures that any changes to values in an instance
    are consistent with changes to other values in the same instance. A consistency constraint
    is a predicate on data which server as a precondition, post-condition, and transformation
    condition on any transaction.

    Isolation

    The isolation portion of the ACID properties is needed when there are concurrent
    transactions. Concurrent transactions are transactions that occur at the same time,
    such as shared multiple users accessing shared objects. This situation is illustrated
    at the top of the figure as activities occurring over time. The safeguards used by
    a DBMS to prevent conflicts between concurrent transactions are a concept referred
    to as isolation.

    Degrees of isolation¹:
    degree 0 – a transaction does not overwrite data updated by another user or process
    (“dirty data”) of other transactions
    degree 1 – degree 0 plus a transaction does not commit any writes until it completes
    all its writes (until the end of transaction)
    degree 2 – degree 1 plus a transaction does not read dirty data from other transactions

    degree 3 – degree 2 plus other transactions do not dirty data read by a transaction
    before the transaction commits
    These were originally described as degrees of consistency by Jim Gray.

    Durability

    Maintaining updates of committed transactions is critical. These updates must never
    be lost. The ACID property of durability addresses this need. Durability refers to
    the ability of the system to recover committed transaction updates if either the
    system or the storage media fails. Features to consider for durability:
    recovery to the most recent successful commit after a database software failure
    recovery to the most recent successful commit after an application software failure
    recovery to the most recent successful commit after a CPU failure
    recovery to the most recent successful backup after a disk failure
    recovery to the most recent successful commit after a data disk failure.
    –#######################################################

    Question 2: What is the size of the installation file of NuoDB for any specific platform.

    Answer 2:
    NuoDB installation file is of size 78.2 MB for [MacOS 10.7 or higher] Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for [Windows (64-bit) Inc/32-bit clients] Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for [RHEL 5.9 & 6.x (64-bit) SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 11 sp2 (64-bit) openSuSe 12.x (64-bit) Amazon Basic EC2 (64-bit)] Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for [Ubuntu 11.10 & 12.x (64-bit)] Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for [RHEL 5.9 & 6.x (64-bit) SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 11 sp2 (64-bit) openSuSe 12.x (64-bit) Amazon Basic EC2 (64-bit) Ubuntu 11.10 & 12.x (64-bit)] Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 53.1 MB for [Solaris 11 (x64) Joyent Smart OS (Supported Release: 1.0.1)] Platform.

  5. Answer 1
    ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability.
    Consistency: This property ensures that only valid data will be written to the database. If, for some reason, a transaction is executed that violates the database’s consistency rules, the entire transaction will be rolled back and the database will be restored to a state consistent with those rules.
    Answer 2
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153MB forWindows Platform.

  6. ACID – Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability
    Atomicity – During a set of SQL transaction, if one of the queries fail then the whole transaction must stop and the database must rollback to a state before the transaction begun.

    NuoDB v1.1.1 installation file is of size 153MB for the Windows Platform.

  7. Answer1:
    ACID properties:
    ACID stands for Atomic, Consistent, Isolation and Durable. The one line definition of a transaction is “a sequence of operations performed as a single logical unit of work.” To be considered a “transaction,” a single logical unit of work must exhibit the ACID properties.
    1) Atomicity – A transaction must be an atomic unit of work where either all of its modifications are made, or none of them are made.
    Quote: “ALL-or-NONE” / “DO-or-DIE”
    Example: A transaction to transfer funds from one account to another involves making a withdrawal operation from the first account and a deposit operation on the second. If the deposit operation failed, you don’t want the withdrawal operation to happen either.
    2) Consistency – When finished a transaction must leave all data in a consistent state. In this case “consistent state” means that all rules, or constraints, are applied to a transaction’s modifications. In other words, each successful transaction by definition commits only legal results.
    Quote: “A completed unit of work must maintain data integrity by leaving all data in the database in a consistent state”
    3) Isolation – If multiple transactions executing concurrently, each transaction must execute without affecting the execution of any other concurrent transactions. It allows a transaction to make modifications to data without other transactions trying to modify the same data at the same time.
    Example: A teller looking up a balance must be isolated from a concurrent transaction involving a withdrawal from the same account. Only when the withdrawal transaction commits successfully and the teller looks at the balance again will the new balance be reported.
    4) Durability -Once a transaction has been completed and has committed its results to the database, the system must guarantee that these results survive any subsequent malfunctions.”
    Quote: “A transaction is considered to be durable when the results of the operation performed by the transaction are permanently applied within the database”

    Answer2: NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform

  8. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability.
    Atomicity : is an all or none rule for database modifications
    Consistency : guarantees that a transaction never leaves the database in a half finished state.
    Isolation : keeps transactions separated from each other until they are finished.
    Durability : guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from an abnormal termination and committed data will not be lost.

  9. 1)
    A – Atomocity
    C – Consistency
    I – Isolation
    D – Durability

    Atomicity is the state which helps the user to maintain the changes made using a transaction to be either everything or nothing. This is the property which guarantees the user that if there is any transaction that encounters a situation where the transaction is stopped half way through its execution, it will bring back the database to the state before the transaction was kicked off. Only if the transaction is complete the changes are saved to the database.

    2) NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.

  10. 1. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability.
    Atomicity means each transaction is either all or nothing.That means if any part of the transaction fails the whole transaction is rolled back and database state is left unchanged.
    The consistency property ensures that any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another.
    The isolation property ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially, i.e. one after the other.
    Durability means that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors.

    2. NuoDB installation file is of size 78.3 MB for Mac Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for windows Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for Linux Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 53.1MB for Solaris Platform.

  11. In Database, ACID refers to the ACID properties of a transaction i.e Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability.
    Atomicity refers to the entire transaction as “all or nothing”
    Consistency guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.
    Isolation keeps your transaction seperate from other concurrent transactions
    Durability means that the transaction should be reflected once it gets commited even in case of any circumstances.

    Download Size of NuoDB installation file: 153MB

  12. Hi Pinal,
    here are the answers :

    1.Database ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) Properties

    There are a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably, referred to as ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability).

    Atomicity

    Atomicity refers to the ability of the database to guarantee that either all of the tasks of a transaction are performed or none of them are. Database modifications must follow an all or nothing rule. Each transaction is said to be atomic if when one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails.

    Consistency

    The consistency property ensures that the database remains in a consistent state before the start of the transaction and after the transaction is over (whether successful or not). For example, in a storefront there is an inconsistent view of what is truly available for purchase if inventory is allowed to fall below 0, making it impossible to provide more than an intent to complete a transaction at checkout time. An example in a double-entry accounting system illustrates the concept of a true transaction. Every debit requires an associated credit. Both of these happen or neither happen.

    A distributed data system is either strongly consistent or has some form of weak consistency. Once again, using the storefront example, a database needs to provide consistency and isolation, so that when one customer is reducing an item in stock and in parallel is increasing the basket by one, this is isolated from another customer who will have to wait while the data store catches up. At the other end of the spectrum is BASE (Basically Available Soft-state Eventual consistency).

    Weak consistency is sometimes referred to as eventual consistency, the database eventually reaches a consistent state. Weak consistency systems are usually ones where data is replicated; the latest version is sitting somewhere in the cluster, older versions are still out there. Eventually all nodes will see the latest version.

    Isolation

    Isolation refers to the requirement that other operations cannot access or see the data in an intermediate state during a transaction. This constraint is required to maintain the performance as well as the consistency between transactions in a database. Thus, each transaction is unaware of another transactions executing concurrently in the system.

    Durability

    Durability refers to the guarantee that once the user has been notified of success, the transaction will persist, and not be undone. This means it will survive system failure, and that the database system has checked the integrity constraints and won’t need to abort the transaction. Many databases implement durability by writing all transactions into a transaction log that can be played back to recreate the system state right before a failure. A transaction can only be deemed committed after it is safely in the log.

    Durability does not imply a permanent state of the database. Another transaction may overwrite any changes made by the current transaction without hindering durability.

    2.NuoDB installation file is of size 150.7021484375 MB for Windows Platform.

  13. ACID stands for:-
    A: – Atomicity
    C: – Consistency
    I: – Isolation
    D: – Durability
    Atomicity means that all the effects of the transaction must complete successfully or the changes are rolled back. Best example is withdrawal of money from ATM machines. The machine must both dispense the cash and debit your bank account.

    Consistency ensures that the transaction cannot break the integrity rule of the database i.e it must leave the database in a consistent state.

    Isolation refers to keeping the change of incomplete transaction running at the same time separate from one another. Each transaction must be entirely self-contained & changes it makes must not be readable by any other transaction.

    Durability means once the transaction is committed it must persist even if there is a system failure i.e it must be durable. In SQL Server the information needed to replay changes made in a transaction is written to the transaction log before the transaction is considered to be committed. Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from an abnormal termination.

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153.04 MB for Windows (64-Bit) Platform

  14. QUESTION 1

    ACID is the acronym for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability: these are the 4 properties that should carachterize each transaction in a database.
    Atomicity means that each transaction must be processed as an atomic unit that starts with a BOT (Begin Of Transaction) and ends with a EOT (End Of Transaction). Two are the possible results: commit work, in which the changes that the transaction made are written permanently on the DB, and rollback work: in this case, every change made by the transaction is undone until the DB returns to the state preceding the BOT.
    Consistency means the transaction must not violate the integrity constraints of the DB.
    Isolation means that every transaction is processed as if it were the only active transaction in the db.
    Durability means that the changes made by the transactions that end in commit work must be written permanently in the db.

    QUESTION 2

    NuoDB installation file is of size 78,2 MB for MacOS Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for Red Hat based Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for Ubuntu Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB for Red hat based and Ubuntu Platform.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 53,1 MB for Solaris Platform.

  15. Answer1:

    The four key properties of a transaction: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. In simple terms,

    Atomic = all changes are made (commit), or none (rollback).
    Consistent = transaction won’t violate declared system integrity constraints
    Isolated = results independent of concurrent transactions.
    Durable = committed changes survive various classes of hardware failure.
    Atomicity
    All changes to data are performed as if they are a single operation. That is, all the changes are performed, or none of them are.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the atomicity property ensures that, if a debit is made successfully from one account, the corresponding credit is made to the other account.

    Example:

    BEGIN TRY
    BEGIN TRAN
    — Check the balance of accounts (10032, 10033)
    select balance from Account where Account_Number=’10032′;
    select balance from Account where Account_Number=’10033′;

    –Debit 900 from account num (10032)
    update Account set balance=balance-900 where Account_Number=’10032′ ;

    — credit 900 which is deboted from first account to account num(10033)
    update Account set balance=balance+900 where Account_Number=’10033′ ;

    –if all above sql queries succeeded
    commit;
    END TRY
    BEGIN CATCH
    rollback; –if any of above Sql queries failed or error
    END CATCH

    Consistency
    Data is in a consistent state when a transaction starts and when it ends.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the consistency property ensures that the total value of funds in both the accounts is the same at the start and end of each transaction.

    Isolation
    The intermediate state of a transaction is invisible to other transactions. As a result, transactions that run concurrently appear to be serialized.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the isolation property ensures that another transaction sees the transferred funds in one account or the other, but not in both, nor in neither.

    Durability
    After a transaction successfully completes, changes to data persist and are not undone, even in the event of a system failure.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the durability property ensures that the changes made to each account will not be reversed.

    Answer2:
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.

    • Hi, in the Rules section I see the below.
      Rules

      The contest will be open till July 21, 2013. All the valid comments will be hidden till the result is announced.

      The winners will be announced on July 24, 2013.

      But, my comment is visible to me as of now… will it be visible to others as well?

  16. Q1: ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability.

    Durability means that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors. In a relational database, for instance, once a group of SQL statements execute, the results need to be stored permanently (even if the database crashes immediately thereafter). To defend against power loss, transactions (or their effects) must be recorded in a non-volatile memory.

    Q2: NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.

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  18. ACID in database terms, stands for: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability

    Atomicity is all or nothing, either the transaction will fail completely and not continue or it will succeed 100%

    Consistency means that after each transaction the Database will be left in a valid state.

    Isolation implies that each transaction doesn’t rely on any other transaction that may be occuring at the same time.

    Durability: Once a transaction has finished and power is lost after success, the data will still be there.

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows x64 Platform

    Ef.

  19. Question 1: What ACID stands in the Database?

    Answer: ACID (an acronymn for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a concept that Database Professionals generally look for when evaluating databases and application architectures. For a reliable database all this four attributes should be achieved.

    Atomicity is an all-or-none proposition.

    Consistency guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.

    Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until they’re finished.

    Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from an abnormal termination.

    Question 2: What is the size of the installation file of NuoDB for any specific platform,

    Answer: NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows(64-bits) Inc/32-bit clients Platform.

  20. ACID is set of properties that believe guarantee transactions are processed reliably.
    A- atomicity,C-consistency,I-isolation,D-durability
    Atomicity : It means that we can give guarantee to all of the transactions happens or none of it does.
    Size of the software: NuoDB
    OS Platform :Windows (64-bit)Inc/32-bit clients
    File size : 153 MB.

  21. ACID is set of properties that believe guarantee transactions are processed reliably.
    A- atomicity,C-consistency,I-isolation,D-durability
    Atomicity : It means that we can give guarantee to all of the transactions happens or none of it does.
    Size of the software: NuoDB
    OS Platform :Windows (64-bit)Inc/32-bit clients
    File size : 153 MB.

  22. ACID
    Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability

    Atomicity: In database systems, atomicity is one of the ACID transaction properties. In an atomic transaction, a series of database operations either all occur, or nothing occurs. A guarantee of atomicity prevents updates to the database occurring only partially, which can cause greater problems than rejecting the whole series outright. In other words, atomicity means indivisibility and irreducibility.

    Consistency: In database systems, a consistent transaction is one that does not violate any integrity constraints during its execution. If a transaction leaves the database in an illegal state, it is aborted and an error is reported.

    Isolation: In database systems, isolation is a property that defines how/when the changes made by one operation become visible to other concurrent operations. Isolation is one of the ACID properties.

    Durability: In database systems, durability is the ACID property which guarantees that transactions that have committed will survive permanently.

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153MB for Windows Platform.

  23. Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
    Atomicity – It states whether a complete transaction takes place. If a small percentage of the transaction fails the whole transaction will fail.
    Consistency – this states whether a database is stable before and after the transaction
    Isolation – this rule stats that when a process is going on in a transaction the data is isolated from the reach of other sources
    Durability – this states when a transaction is completed if the database is in stable state or now

    • Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
      Atomicity – It states whether a complete transaction takes place. If a small percentage of the transaction fails the whole transaction will fail.
      Consistency – this states whether a database is stable before and after the transaction
      Isolation – this rule stats that when a process is going on in a transaction the data is isolated from the reach of other sources
      Durability – this states when a transaction is completed if the database is in stable state or not

      NuoDB installation file is of size 78.3 MB for Mac OS Platform.

  24. Hi Sir,

    Answer for Q1 : ACID stands for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
    Atomicity : if one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails, and the database state is left unchanged. i.e it is an all-or-none proposition.
    Consistency : Ensure that transaction never leaves the database in a half-finished state.
    Isolation : transactions are kept separated from each other until the operation is finished.
    Durability : Means that the safety of the committed data is ensured. The pending changes in the database will be tracked so that the server can recover from an abnormal activity.

    Answer for Q2 : NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows 64-bit,Inc/32-bit clients Platform.

    Thanks and Regards,
    Anish Shenoy
    Bangalore

  25. ANSWER 1).
    ACID is related to transaction in the database.A transaction is a group of database commands that are treated as a single unit. A successful transaction must pass the “ACID” test, that is, it must be
    A – Atomic
    C – Consistent
    I – Isolated
    D – Durable

    Atomic – All statements in the transaction either completed successfully or they were all rolled back. The task that the set of operations represents is either accomplished or not, but in any case not left half-done. For example, in the UpdateInventory_and_Sell stored procedure, both the UPDATE statements, should succeed. If one UPDATE statement succeeds and the other UPDATE statement fails, the database should undo the change made by the first UPDATE statement, by rolling it back. In short, the transaction should be ATOMIC.

    tblProduct
    ProductId Name UnitPricce QtyAvailable
    1 samsungGalaxy 18000 90
    2 micromax canvas4 12000 50

    tblProductSales
    ProductISalesId ProductId QuantitySold
    1 1 10
    2 1 10

    Create Procedure UpdateInventory_and_Sell
    as
    Begin
    Begin Try
    Begin Transaction
    Update tblProduct set QtyAvailable = (QtyAvailable – 10)
    where ProductId = 1

    Insert into tblProductSales values(3, 1, 10)
    Commit Transaction
    End Try
    Begin Catch
    Rollback Transaction
    End Catch
    End
    Consistent – All data touched by the transaction is left in a logically consistent state. For example, if stock available numbers are decremented from tblProductTable, then, there has to be a related entry in tblProductSales table. The inventory can’t just disappear.

    Isolated – The transaction must affect data without interfering with other concurrent transactions, or being interfered with by them. This prevents transactions from making changes to data based on uncommitted information, for example changes to a record that are subsequently rolled back. Most databases use locking to maintain transaction isolation.

    Durable – Once a change is made, it is permanent. If a system error or power failure occurs before a set of commands is complete, those commands are undone and the data is restored to its original state once the system begins running again.

    ANSWER 2)
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for WINDOWS Platform.

  26. Q1

    In ACID , the letter A stands for “Atomicity” which means that transaction as a set of operations follows the “all or nothing” or speaking of “The Three Musketeers” the “all for one,one for all” motto.
    In other words, every single operation within transaction must succeed for the transaction to be commited and if even one of them will fail the transaction crashes and is gone. So looking at the execution from outside scope you either see full transaction executed (commited) or it has never happened (rollback).

    Q2

    Installation file for windows x64 has 153 MB (160 481 280 bytes on disk)

  27. 1. ACID Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.

    Atomicity
    Atomicity requires that each transaction is “all or nothing”: if one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails, and the database state is left unchanged. An atomic system must guarantee atomicity in each and every situation, including power failures, errors, and crashes. To the outside world, a committed transaction appears (by its effects on the database) to be indivisible (“atomic”), and an aborted transaction does not happen.

    Consistency
    The consistency property ensures that any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another. Any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including but not limited to constraints, cascades, triggers, and any combination thereof. This does not guarantee correctness of the transaction in all ways the application programmer might have wanted (that is the responsibility of application-level code) but merely that any programming errors do not violate any defined rules.

    Isolation
    The isolation property ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially, i.e. one after the other. Providing isolation is the main goal of concurrency control. Depending on concurrency control method, the effects of an incomplete transaction might not even be visible to another transaction.[citation needed]

    Durability
    Durability means that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors. In a relational database, for instance, once a group of SQL statements execute, the results need to be stored permanently (even if the database crashes immediately thereafter). To defend against power loss, transactions (or their effects) must be recorded in a non-volatile memory.

    2. NuoDB installation file is of size 109 MB for Ubuntu 11.10 & 12.x (64-bit) Platform.

  28. ACID stands for: Automicity ,Consistency ,Isolation and Durability

    Brief about Isolation property:
    Isolation refers to the requirement that other operations cannot access or see the data in an intermediate state during a transaction. This constraint is required to maintain the performance as well as the consistency between transactions in a database.

  29. 1. ACID = Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability)
    Atomicity: for all-or-none proposition

    Consistency: guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.

    Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until they’re finished.

    Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from an abnormal termination.

    described in ISO/IEC 10026-1:1992 Section 4

    2. NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Win 64 Platform.

  30. Isolation
    When the database engine inserts values into a table, nothing else should be able to change those values at the same time. Similarly, if the database engine needs to roll back to a previous state, nothing else should have affected that state or left it indeterminate. In other words, each action must happen in isolation from all others.

    In terms of what other users see when they look at a transaction, or the data that is being
    considered, that’s the domain of the isolation level.

  31. Ans1. ACID (an acronym for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a concept that database professionals generally look for while evaluating relational databases and application architectures, for a reliable database , all four of these attributes should be achieved.

    Atomicity i an all-or-none rule for database modifications.

    Consistency guarantees that a transaction never leaves your database in a half-finished state.

    Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until they are finished.

    Durability guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes in such a way that the server can recover from abnormal terminations will not be lost.

    Ans2. NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform.

  32. ACID

    Atomicity – Each transaction is an all-or-nothing

    Consistency – Any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another. Any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including but not limited to constraints, cascades, triggers, and any combination thereof. This does not guarantee correctness of the transaction in all ways the application programmer might have wanted (that is the responsibility of application-level code) but merely that any programming errors do not violate any defined rules.

    Isolation- The concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially, i.e. one after the other. Providing isolation is the main goal of concurrency control. Depending on concurrency control method, the effects of an incomplete transaction might not even be visible to another transaction.

    Durability- Once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors. In a relational database, for instance, once a group of SQL statements execute, the results need to be stored permanently (even if the database crashes immediately thereafter). To defend against power loss, transactions (or their effects) must be recorded in a non-volatile memory.

    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows (64-bit) Inc/32-bit clients Platform.

  33. Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability.
    -Atomicity means all or nothing. Either all statements within the transaction will execute either all will not execute.
    -Isolation means that when concurrent transactions start to work, they will finish without interfering between themselves.
    NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows Platform

  34. 1. Atomicity,Consistency,Isolation and Durability

    Atomicity : It means each transaction is valid or all are failed. If the part of the transactions failed then whole transaction fails and database state left un changed.

    2. for nuodb-1.1.windows.x64 is 154,319 KB . which is 1.54GB

  35. Answer for Question 1:
    ACID is an acronym for Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability.
    For a database to be reliable, it has to satisfy all these four attributes.

    Atomicity property guaranteed either all changes in the transaction succeed, or none do. If one part of the transaction fails (including power failures, errors, and crashes), the entire transaction fails, and the database state is left unchanged. If for some reason a failure occurs before the transaction could complete (before the commit instruction recorded in the transaction log), then upon restart, SQL Server reverts the changes that took place in that transaction.

    Normally SQL Server rolls back the transaction in case of any error during that transaction. But exception to this is that there are some errors are not considered severe enough for automatic rollback of the transaction, such as primary key violation for example. For such cases, you can use error handling to capture the errors and perform necessary action (For instance, you could log the error to the error log table and roll back the transaction).

    Example of Atomicity failure:
    Assume that a transaction attempts to subtract 10 from A and add 10 to B. This is a valid transaction, since the data continue to satisfy the constraint after it has executed. However, assume that after removing 10 from A, the transaction is unable to modify B. If the database retained A’s new value, atomicity and the constraint would both be violated. Atomicity requires that both parts of this transaction, or neither, be complete.

    Consistency property ensures that the data meets all validation rules.
    It ensures that any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another. Any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including but not limited to constraints, cascades, triggers, etc. This ensures that any programming errors do not violate any defined rules.

    Example:
    Say that the requirement is that A + B must be 100.
    Assume that a transaction attempts to subtract 10 from A and add 10 to B.
    Assume that after removing 10 from A, the transaction is unable to modify B.
    Since consistency is checked after each transaction, a validation check will show that A + B as 90, which is inconsistent with the rules of the database.
    So the entire transaction must be cancelled and the affected rows must be rolled back to their pre-transaction state.

    Isolation keeps transactions separated from each other until they are finished. It ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially, i.e. one after the other, and also controls access to the data and ensures that transactions access data only if it is in the level of consistency that those transactions expect. SQL Server uses locks to isolate data that is being modified and queried by one transaction, from other transactions.

    Example:
    Assume two transactions execute at the same time, each attempting to modify the same data. One of the two must wait until the other completes in order to maintain isolation.

    Consider two transactions. T1 transfers 10 from A to B. T2 transfers 10 from B to A. Combined, there are four actions:
    1. subtract 10 from A
    2. add 10 to B.

    3. subtract 10 from B
    4. add 10 to A.
    If these operations are performed in order, isolation is maintained, although T2 must wait.

    Consider the situation where T1 subtracts 10 from A (Step 1 below).
    T2 adds 10 to A restoring it to its initial value (Step 4 below).

    Now T1 fails.

    What should A’s value be?
    T2 has already changed it. So A will have the same value as it was before the transaction began.

    Also, T1 never changed B.

    T2 subtracts 10 from it (Step 3 below. So B now has 10 less).
    If T2 is allowed to complete, B’s value will now be 10 less, while A’s value unchanged leaving an invalid database.

    The sequence of events are:
    1. A -10 (T1)
    2. B + 10 (T1)

    3. B-10 (T2)
    4. A + 10 (T2)

    If DB doesn’t provide isolation levels to above transaction(s), the order may not be predictable and if one of the above steps fail, DB will not be in a consistent state.

    Durability property ensures that data changes are always written to the database’s transaction log on disk before they are written to the database on disk. Once the COMMIT is executed, the commit instruction is recorded in the transaction log on disk at which point the transaction is considered durable even if the change hasn’t been written to the physical disk yet. When the system starts, either normally or after a system failure, SQL Server checks the transaction log of each database and runs a recovery process which involves two phases—redo and undo.

    The redo phase involves re-applying or replaying all changes in transaction log that has not been written to the physical disk.

    The undo phase involves rolling back or undoing (Reverting) changes of transactions for which COMMIT has not been recorded in the transaction log.

    Example:
    Assume that a transaction transfers 10 from A to B. It removes 10 from A. It then adds 10 to B. At this point, COMMIT instruction is executed. At this point the changes are written to the transaction log and still waiting to be committed to the physical disk. Now say the power fails and the changes are lost. But from the user perspective the change has already been committed.

    Answer for Question 2:
    1. NuoDB installation file is of size 153 MB for Windows 64-bit Inc 32-bit clients Platform.
    2. NuoDB installation file is of size 78.2 MB for MacOS 10.7 or higher
    3. NuoDB installation file is of size 109 MB for RHEL 5.9 & 6.x (64-bit), SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 11 sp2 (64-bit), openSuSe 12.x (64-bit) , Amazon Basic EC2 (64-bit)
    4. NuoDB installation file is of size 109 MB for Ubuntu 11.10 & 12.x (64-bit)
    5. NuoDB installation file is of size 110 MB For RHEL 5.9 & 6.x (64-bit), SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 11 sp2 (64-bit), openSuSe 12.x (64-bit)
    Amazon Basic EC2 (64-bit), Ubuntu 11.10 & 12.x (64-bit)
    6. NuoDB installation file is of size 53.1 MB for Solaris 11 (x64), Joyent Smart OS (Supported Release: 1.0.1)

  36. Q1 Answer:
    Transaction objects are used when committing or aborting nested transactions at other than the lowest level. A transaction is an indivisible work unit defined by the ACID test. ACID stands for:

    Atomicity: cannot be divided into smaller work units.

    Concurrency: more than one transaction can occur at a time.

    Isolation: one transaction has limited knowledge about changes made by another.

    Durability: the transaction makes persistent changes.

    Q2 Answer:
    The size of NuoDB on Windows 7 x64Platform are
    Size: 160,447,768 bytes
    Size on disk is 160,448,512 bytes

  37. Q1 Answer:
    Transaction objects are used when committing or aborting nested transactions at other than the lowest level. A transaction is an indivisible work unit defined by the ACID test. ACID stands for:

    Atomicity: cannot be divided into smaller work units.

    Concurrency: more than one transaction can occur at a time.

    Isolation: one transaction has limited knowledge about changes made by another.

    Durability: the transaction makes persistent changes.

    Q2 Answer:
    The size of NuoDB on Windows 7 x64Platform are
    Size: 160,447,768 bytes
    Size on disk is 160,448,512 bytes

  38. 1. NuoDB installation file size is 153MB for Windows(64 bit) Platform.

    2. ACID is an acronym for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. It generally look for when evaluating databases and application architectures. For a reliable database all this four attributes should be achieved. When a transaction processing system creates a transaction, it will ensure that the transaction will have these characteristics.

    ATOMICITY: The atomicity property identifies that the transaction is atomic. An Atomic transaction is either fully completed, or is not begun at all. If for any reason an error occurs and the transaction is unable to complete all of its steps, the then system is returned to the state it was in before the transaction was started.

    CONSISTENCY: A transaction enforces Consistency in the system state by ensuring that at the end of any transaction the system is in a valid state. If the transaction completes successfully, then all changes to the system will have been properly made, and the system will be in a valid state. If any error occurs in a transaction, then any changes already made will be automatically rolled back.

    ISOLATION: When a transaction runs in Isolation, it appears to be the only action that the system is carrying out at one time. If there are two transactions that are both performing the same function and are running at the same time, transaction isolation will ensure that each transaction thinks it has exclusive use of the system.

    DURABILITY: A transaction is Durable in that once it has been successfully completed, all of the changes it made to the system are permanent. There are safeguards that will prevent the loss of information, even in the case of system failure.

  39. 1. NuoDB installation file size is 153MB for Windows(64 bit) Platform.

    2. ACID is an acronym for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. It generally look for when evaluating databases and application architectures. For a reliable database all this four attributes should be achieved. When a transaction processing system creates a transaction, it will ensure that the transaction will have these characteristics.

    ATOMICITY: The atomicity property identifies that the transaction is atomic. An Atomic transaction is either fully completed, or is not begun at all. If for any reason an error occurs and the transaction is unable to complete all of its steps, the then system is returned to the state it was in before the transaction was started.

    CONSISTENCY: A transaction enforces Consistency in the system state by ensuring that at the end of any transaction the system is in a valid state. If the transaction completes successfully, then all changes to the system will have been properly made, and the system will be in a valid state. If any error occurs in a transaction, then any changes already made will be automatically rolled back.

    ISOLATION: When a transaction runs in Isolation, it appears to be the only action that the system is carrying out at one time. If there are two transactions that are both performing the same function and are running at the same time, transaction isolation will ensure that each transaction thinks it has exclusive use of the system.

    DURABILITY: A transaction is Durable in that once it has been successfully completed, all of the changes it made to the system are permanent. There are safeguards that will prevent the loss of information, even in the case of system failure.

  40. Thank you All for amazing participation.

    All the winners are informed individually in the emails. If you receive the email, please make sure to REPLY ALL without changing subject of the email.

    Thank YOU! It was a great contest and The conversation has been more than excellent. If you have not win in this contest. There is another contest we are launching tomorrow – you get another chance. If you are winner in this contest – you can still take part in the contest tomorrow but you will not qualify for giveaway.

    Thanks again!

  41. Pingback: SQL – What is the latest Version of NuoDB? – A Quick Contest to Get Amazon Gift Cards | Journey to SQL Authority with Pinal Dave

  42. Pingback: SQL – Download NuoDB and Qualify for FREE Amazon Gift Cards | Journey to SQL Authority with Pinal Dave

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