SQL SERVER – The Easy Functions of SQL Server – Notes from the Field #062

SQL SERVER - The Easy Functions of SQL Server - Notes from the Field #062 Kathi [Note from Pinal]: In this episode of the Notes from the Field series database expert Kathi Kellenberger explains about easy and amazing functions of SQL Server. Kathi is an amazing instructor, she was the SQL author I have read in my early career. The reason, I love SQL Server because her writing has instigated love for this technology in me. Today she brings a relatively unknown topic for database experts. Read the experience of  Kathi in her own words.


Have you ever tried to format a datetime value in T-SQL? I have seen some pretty crazy code that looked something like this:

DECLARE @date DATETIME = GETDATE();
SELECT CAST(YEAR(@date) AS CHAR(4)) + '/' +
RIGHT('0' + CAST(MONTH(@date) AS VARCHAR(2)),2) + '/' +
RIGHT('0' + CAST(DAY(@date) AS VARCHAR(2)),2) + ' ' +
RIGHT('0' + CAST(DATEPART(HOUR,@date) AS VARCHAR(2)),2) + ':' +
RIGHT('0' + CAST(DATEPART(MINUTE,@date) AS VARCHAR(2)),2);

Starting with SQL Server 2012, there is an even easier method: The FORMAT function. The FORMAT function, can do the same thing as the previous code, but it is so much easier to write. The FORMAT function is one of five functions added with SQL Server 2012 that I like to call The Easy Functions. The Easy Functions are listed in the table below.

The Easy Functions
CategoryFunctionDefinition
LogicalCHOOSESelect one expression from a list
 IIFInline IF. Evaluate an expression and substitute another expression for true or false
StringCONCATAdd strings together
 FORMATFormat a string including “C” for currency and “P” for percent
DateEOMONTHReturns the last day of the month

The following script demonstrates the logical functions.

USE AdventureWorks2014; --Or 2012
GO
SELECT  CustomerID, COUNT(*) AS OrderCount,
CHOOSE(COUNT(*), 'Bronze','Silver','Gold','Platinum') AS MemberLevel,
AVG(TotalDue) AS AvgOrder,
IIF(AVG(TotalDue) > 1000, 'High','Low') AS Priority
FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
WHERE CustomerID IN (11060, 11062, 11065, 11068, 11070, 12165)
GROUP BY CustomerID;

SQL SERVER - The Easy Functions of SQL Server - Notes from the Field #062 notes-62-1

The query returns the count of orders for several customers. A MemberLevel is assigned based on the number of orders the customer has placed, and a Priority is assigned based on the average order. If the average order is over $1000, then the customer has a high priority.

Take a look at the CHOOSE expression. The first argument is an integer, the count of the orders. After the order count, there is a list of values. The list of values is actually a 1-based array, and the first argument is an index into the array.

The IIF function requires three arguments. The first argument is an expression to check, the average order. The second argument is a value to return if the expression is TRUE. The third argument is a value to return for FALSE.

The next example demonstrates the string functions.

SELECT C.CustomerID, P.FirstName, P.MiddleName, P.LastName,
CONCAT(P.FirstName, ' ' + P.MiddleName, ' ', P.LastName) AS FullName,
FORMAT(SUM(TotalDue),'C') AS TotalSales,
FORMAT(SUM(TotalDue)/SUM(SUM(TotalDue)) OVER(),'P') AS PercentOfSales,
FORMAT(MIN(OrderDate),'yyyy.MM.dd') AS FirstOrderDate
FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader AS SOH
JOIN Sales.Customer AS C ON SOH.CustomerID = C.CustomerID
JOIN Person.Person AS P ON P.BusinessEntityID = C.PersonID
WHERE C.CustomerID IN (11060, 11062, 11065, 11068, 11070, 12165)
GROUP BY C.CustomerID, P.FirstName, P.MiddleName, P.LastName;

SQL SERVER - The Easy Functions of SQL Server - Notes from the Field #062 notes-62-2

The query uses the CONCAT function to build a FullName column. The CONCAT function ignores NULL values. Notice that rows 3 and 4 returned the FullName even though the MiddleName values are NULL. To make sure an extra space doesn’t show up when the MiddleName is missing, the space is combined with MiddleName as one of the arguments. NULL added to a space is NULL, which will be ignored.

There are three examples of FORMAT. The first example formats TotalSales as currency, in this case USD. The next example, PercentOfSales, formats a complex expression comparing each customer’s sales to the overall total. It uses a window aggregate function to calculate the total sales for the query. (Window aggregates is a great topic for another post!) The final example formats the FirstOrderDate in a custom format.

Here is one last easy function: EOMONTH.

SELECT CustomerID, MIN(OrderDate) AS FirstOrderDate,
EOMONTH(MIN(OrderDate)) AS LastDayOfMonth,
EOMONTH(MIN(OrderDate),1) AS LastDayOfNextMonth
FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
WHERE CustomerID IN (11060, 11062, 11065, 11068, 11070, 12165)
GROUP BY CustomerID;

SQL SERVER - The Easy Functions of SQL Server - Notes from the Field #062 notes-62-3

The EOMONTH function returns the last day of the month for the supplied date argument. The second example, LastDayOfNextMonth, uses the optional parameter that adds another month.

I hope that using The Easy Functions will make your life easier!

If you want to get started with BIML with the help of experts, read more over at Fix Your SQL Server.

Reference: Pinal Dave (https://blog.sqlauthority.com)

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2 Comments. Leave new

  • Luca Zavarella (@lucazav)
    January 17, 2015 4:37 pm

    Useful post! I realized it isn’t often clear that the CONCAT function can be used to avoid to cast different data types in concatenating objects of different data type:

    DECLARE @name AS VARCHAR(20) = ‘Luca’,
    @age AS TINYINT = 37;

    SELECT
    CONCAT(@name, ‘ is ‘, @age, ‘ years old’) AS UseConcat
    , @name + ‘ is ‘ + CAST(@age AS VARCHAR(3)) + ‘ years old’ AS NoConcat;

    Reply

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