Book Online has wonderful resources for the same. I suggest to read them Data Mining Algorithms.
This algorithm is the mechanism that creates a data mining model. To create a model, an algorithm first analyzes a set of data and looks for specific patterns and trends. The algorithm uses the results of this analysis to define the parameters of the mining model. These parameters are then applied across the entire data set to extract actionable patterns and detailed statistics.
The algorithms provided in SQL Server Data Mining are the most popular, well-researched methods of deriving patterns from data. Choosing the best algorithm to use for a specific analysis task can be a challenge. While you can use different algorithms to perform the same business task, each algorithm produces a different result, and some algorithms can produce more than one type of result. Experienced analysts will sometimes use one algorithm to determine the most effective inputs (that is, variables), and then apply a different algorithm to predict a specific outcome based on that data. All of the Microsoft data mining algorithms can be extensively customized and are fully programmable, using the provided APIs.
Let me know what you think about this subject.
Reference: Pinal Dave (https://blog.sqlauthority.com)