SQL SERVER – Auditors, Passwords and Exceptions – Notes from the Field #010

[Note from Pinal]: This is a 10th episode of Notes from the Field series. Every other day, I read online about various security breach happening worldwide – some have lost passwords, some have lost phone numbers and some have lost credit card information. Security is the most important aspect of the application. The worst scenario would be when theives comes to your door and you have kept your key under your door-mat, which they are able to guess. Password is just like key to get into the database. If you keep your password so easy that everyone can guess, it would be very bad for your system. You need to keep it complex and also follow your organization’s policy. In this blog post Brian hits very important concept about application security.

In this episode of the Notes from the Field series database expert Brian Kelley explains a very crucial issue DBAs and Developer faces on their production server. Linchpin People are database coaches and wellness experts for a data driven world. Read the experience of Brian in his own words.

Auditors focus on logins, especially the password settings. Why? They do because it’s easy to audit and those audits find that too many organizations still get them wrong. With respect to SQL Server, you can’t control things like how many days before the password expires or what the complexity rules are. Those are controlled by the operating system and SQL Server follows the operating system’s rules. What can be controlled is if a login follows the login policy rules. There are actually three options here:

  • The login doesn’t follow any of the policy rules.
  • The login follows all of the policy rules.
  • The login follows all of the policy rules except for password expiration.

Auditors are interested in exceptions. When something doesn’t follow the rules or doesn’t follow all of the rules, an auditor gets interested. If you’re asked to show the auditors evidence of what a login follows, there are two ways to do this: via the GUI or via a script. In many cases auditors will ask for a screenshot that looks something like:

Note the areas I’ve highlighted. This is the information most auditors are looking for with respect to logins that are created within SQL Server (not domain accounts like domain users or groups). If you only have a small number of logins, then using the GUI is not very time consuming. If you have a lot of SQL logins or SQL Servers to audit, however, you want to script this. While an auditor may ask for a screenshot, what an auditor really wants is the information contained in the screenshot. Clicking through every login and taking a screenshot is a waste of time. Thankfully, there is a particular catalog view, sys.sql_logins, that contains all the information the auditor will want.

The catalog view sys.sql_logins contains all the same information as sys.server_principals plus other information that is applicable only to SQL Server-based logins. What’s more, it only contains the SQL Server-based logins. It doesn’t contain any information on Windows users and groups. Therefore, it’s the right catalog view to use to satisfy the auditors asking about logins and passwords. This query will return the information they need:

SELECT name, is_disabled,
is_policy_checked, is_expiration_checked
FROM sys.sql_logins;

You can still give them a screenshot, however instead of giving them a screenshot of each and every login, you should give them the screenshot of the query and the results of that query. In the following screenshot, I’ve flagged two logins that would be of interest to the auditors because these do not follow the password policy (is_policy_checked = 0).

If you have a lot of SQL Servers, you could simply automate this query with a PowerShell script that queries each server and dumps the results to a text file. In that way you save a lot of time providing the results needed, freeing you up for other tasks. Remember, auditors need the information, they don’t necessarily need a screenshot for each and every login.

If you want to get started with performance tuning and database security with the help of experts, read more over at Fix Your SQL Server.

Reference: Pinal Dave (https://blog.sqlauthority.com)

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