SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 5

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
Print Book Available (207 Pages) | Sample Chapters

UPDATE : Interview Questions and Answers are now updated with SQL Server 2008 Questions and its answers. New Location : SQL Server 2008 Interview Questions and Answers.

What command do we use to rename a db?
sp_renamedb ‘oldname’ , ‘newname’
If someone is using db it will not accept sp_renmaedb. In that case first bring db to single user using sp_dboptions. Use sp_renamedb to rename database. Use sp_dboptions to bring database to multi user mode.

What is sp_configure commands and set commands?
Use sp_configure to display or change server-level settings. To change database-level settings, use ALTER DATABASE. To change settings that affect only the current user session, use the SET statement.

What are the different types of replication? Explain.
The SQL Server 2000-supported replication types are as follows:

  • Transactional
  • Snapshot
  • Merge

Snapshot replication distributes data exactly as it appears at a specific moment in time and does not monitor for updates to the data. Snapshot replication is best used as a method for replicating data that changes infrequently or where the most up-to-date values (low latency) are not a requirement. When synchronization occurs, the entire snapshot is generated and sent to Subscribers.

Transactional replication, an initial snapshot of data is applied at Subscribers, and then when data modifications are made at the Publisher, the individual transactions are captured and propagated to Subscribers.

Merge replication is the process of distributing data from Publisher to Subscribers, allowing the Publisher and Subscribers to make updates while connected or disconnected, and then merging the updates between sites when they are connected.

What are the OS services that the SQL Server installation adds?
MS SQL SERVER SERVICE, SQL AGENT SERVICE, DTC (Distribution transac co-ordinator)

What are three SQL keywords used to change or set someone’s permissions?
GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE.

What does it mean to have quoted_identifier on? What are the implications of having it off?
When SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER is ON, identifiers can be delimited by double quotation marks, and literals must be delimited by single quotation marks. When SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER is OFF, identifiers cannot be quoted and must follow all Transact-SQL rules for identifiers.

What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
STUFF function to overwrite existing characters. Using this syntax, STUFF(string_expression, start, length, replacement_characters), string_expression is the string that will have characters substituted, start is the starting position, length is the number of characters in the string that are substituted, and replacement_characters are the new characters interjected into the string.
REPLACE function to replace existing characters of all occurance. Using this syntax REPLACE(string_expression, search_string, replacement_string), where every incidence of search_string found in the string_expression will be replaced with replacement_string.

Using query analyzer, name 3 ways to get an accurate count of the number of records in a table?
SELECT *
FROM table1
SELECT COUNT(*)
FROM table1
SELECT rows
FROM sysindexes
WHERE id = OBJECT_ID(table1)
AND
indid < 2

How to rebuild Master Database?
Shutdown Microsoft SQL Server 2000, and then run Rebuildm.exe. This is located in the Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\80\Tools\Binn directory.
In the Rebuild Master dialog box, click Browse.
In the Browse for Folder dialog box, select the \Data folder on the SQL Server 2000 compact disc or in the shared network directory from which SQL Server 2000 was installed, and then click OK.
Click Settings. In the Collation Settings dialog box, verify or change settings used for the master database and all other databases.
Initially, the default collation settings are shown, but these may not match the collation selected during setup. You can select the same settings used during setup or select new collation settings. When done, click OK.
In the Rebuild Master dialog box, click Rebuild to start the process.
The Rebuild Master utility reinstalls the master database.
To continue, you may need to stop a server that is running.
Source: http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa197950(SQL.80).aspx

What is the basic functions for master, msdb, model, tempdb databases?
The Master database holds information for all databases located on the SQL Server instance and is the glue that holds the engine together. Because SQL Server cannot start without a functioning master database, you must administer this database with care.
The msdb database stores information regarding database backups, SQL Agent information, DTS packages, SQL Server jobs, and some replication information such as for log shipping.
The tempdb holds temporary objects such as global and local temporary tables and stored procedures.
The model is essentially a template database used in the creation of any new user database created in the instance.

What are primary keys and foreign keys?
Primary keys are the unique identifiers for each row. They must contain unique values and cannot be null. Due to their importance in relational databases, Primary keys are the most fundamental of all keys and constraints. A table can have only one Primary key.
Foreign keys are both a method of ensuring data integrity and a manifestation of the relationship between tables.

What is data integrity? Explain constraints?
Data integrity is an important feature in SQL Server. When used properly, it ensures that data is accurate, correct, and valid. It also acts as a trap for otherwise undetectable bugs within applications.

A PRIMARY KEY constraint is a unique identifier for a row within a database table. Every table should have a primary key constraint to uniquely identify each row and only one primary key constraint can be created for each table. The primary key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity.

A UNIQUE constraint enforces the uniqueness of the values in a set of columns, so no duplicate values are entered. The unique key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity as the primary key constraints.

A FOREIGN KEY constraint prevents any actions that would destroy links between tables with the corresponding data values. A foreign key in one table points to a primary key in another table. Foreign keys prevent actions that would leave rows with foreign key values when there are no primary keys with that value. The foreign key constraints are used to enforce referential integrity.

A CHECK constraint is used to limit the values that can be placed in a column. The check constraints are used to enforce domain integrity.

A NOT NULL constraint enforces that the column will not accept null values. The not null constraints are used to enforce domain integrity, as the check constraints.

Complete Series of SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Introduction
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 2
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 3
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 4
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 5
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 6
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers Complete List Download

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 3

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
Print Book Available (207 Pages) | Sample Chapters

UPDATE : Interview Questions and Answers are now updated with SQL Server 2008 Questions and its answers. New Location : SQL Server 2008 Interview Questions and Answers.

What is a NOLOCK?
Using the NOLOCK query optimiser hint is generally considered good practice in order to improve concurrency on a busy system. When the NOLOCK hint is included in a SELECT statement, no locks are taken when data is read. The result is a Dirty Read, which means that another process could be updating the data at the exact time you are reading it. There are no guarantees that your query will retrieve the most recent data. The advantage to performance is that your reading of data will not block updates from taking place, and updates will not block your reading of data. SELECT statements take Shared (Read) locks. This means that multiple SELECT statements are allowed simultaneous access, but other processes are blocked from modifying the data. The updates will queue until all the reads have completed, and reads requested after the update will wait for the updates to complete. The result to your system is delay(blocking).

What is difference between DELETE & TRUNCATE commands?
Delete command removes the rows from a table based on the condition that we provide with a WHERE clause. Truncate will actually remove all the rows from a table and there will be no data in the table after we run the truncate command.

TRUNCATE
TRUNCATE is faster and uses fewer system and transaction log resources than DELETE.
TRUNCATE removes the data by deallocating the data pages used to store the table’s data, and only the page deallocations are recorded in the transaction log.
TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table, but the table structure and its columns, constraints, indexes and so on remain. The counter used by an identity for new rows is reset to the seed for the column.
You cannot use TRUNCATE TABLE on a table referenced by a FOREIGN KEY constraint.
Because TRUNCATE TABLE is not logged, it cannot activate a trigger.
TRUNCATE can not be Rolled back using logs.
TRUNCATE is DDL Command.
TRUNCATE Resets identity of the table.

DELETE
DELETE removes rows one at a time and records an entry in the transaction log for each deleted row.
If you want to retain the identity counter, use DELETE instead. If you want to remove table definition and its data, use the DROP TABLE statement.
DELETE Can be used with or without a WHERE clause
DELETE Activates Triggers.
DELETE Can be Rolled back using logs.
DELETE is DML Command.
DELETE does not reset identity of the table.

Difference between Function and Stored Procedure?
UDF can be used in the SQL statements anywhere in the WHERE/HAVING/SELECT section where as Stored procedures cannot be.
UDFs that return tables can be treated as another rowset. This can be used in JOINs with other tables.
Inline UDF’s can be though of as views that take parameters and can be used in JOINs and other Rowset operations.

When is the use of UPDATE_STATISTICS command?
This command is basically used when a large processing of data has occurred. If a large amount of deletions any modification or Bulk Copy into the tables has occurred, it has to update the indexes to take these changes into account. UPDATE_STATISTICS updates the indexes on these tables accordingly.

What types of Joins are possible with Sql Server?
Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table.
Types of joins: INNER JOINs, OUTER JOINs, CROSS JOINs. OUTER JOINs are further classified as LEFT OUTER JOINS, RIGHT OUTER JOINS and FULL OUTER JOINS.

What is the difference between a HAVING CLAUSE and a WHERE CLAUSE?
Specifies a search condition for a group or an aggregate. HAVING can be used only with the SELECT statement. HAVING is typically used in a GROUP BY clause. When GROUP BY is not used, HAVING behaves like a WHERE clause. Having Clause is basically used only with the GROUP BY function in a query. WHERE Clause is applied to each row before they are part of the GROUP BY function in a query. HAVING criteria is applied after the the grouping of rows has occurred.

What is sub-query? Explain properties of sub-query.
Sub-queries are often referred to as sub-selects, as they allow a SELECT statement to be executed arbitrarily within the body of another SQL statement. A sub-query is executed by enclosing it in a set of parentheses. Sub-queries are generally used to return a single row as an atomic value, though they may be used to compare values against multiple rows with the IN keyword.

A subquery is a SELECT statement that is nested within another T-SQL statement. A subquery SELECT statement if executed independently of the T-SQL statement, in which it is nested, will return a result set. Meaning a subquery SELECT statement can standalone and is not depended on the statement in which it is nested. A subquery SELECT statement can return any number of values, and can be found in, the column list of a SELECT statement, a FROM, GROUP BY, HAVING, and/or ORDER BY clauses of a T-SQL statement. A Subquery can also be used as a parameter to a function call. Basically a subquery can be used anywhere an expression can be used.

Properties of Sub-Query
A subquery must be enclosed in the parenthesis.
A subquery must be put in the right hand of the comparison operator, and
A subquery cannot contain a ORDER-BY clause.
A query can contain more than one sub-queries.

What are types of sub-queries?
Single-row subquery, where the subquery returns only one row.
Multiple-row subquery, where the subquery returns multiple rows,.and
Multiple column subquery, where the subquery returns multiple columns.

Complete Series of SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers -Introduction
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 2
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 3
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 4
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 5
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 6
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers Complete List Download

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 2

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
Print Book Available (207 Pages) | Sample Chapters

UPDATE : Interview Questions and Answers are now updated with SQL Server 2008 Questions and its answers. New Location : SQL Server 2008 Interview Questions and Answers.

What is the difference between clustered and a non-clustered index?
A clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages.

A nonclustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a nonclustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows.

What are the different index configurations a table can have?
A table can have one of the following index configurations:

No indexes
A clustered index
A clustered index and many nonclustered indexes
A nonclustered index
Many nonclustered indexes

What is cursors?
Cursor is a database object used by applications to manipulate data in a set on a row-by-row basis, instead of the typical SQL commands that operate on all the rows in the set at one time.

In order to work with a cursor we need to perform some steps in the following order:

Declare cursor
Open cursor
Fetch row from the cursor
Process fetched row
Close cursor
Deallocate cursor

What is the use of DBCC commands?
DBCC stands for database consistency checker. We use these commands to check the consistency of the databases, i.e., maintenance, validation task and status checks.
E.g. DBCC CHECKDB – Ensures that tables in the db and the indexes are correctly linked.
DBCC CHECKALLOC – To check that all pages in a db are correctly allocated.
DBCC CHECKFILEGROUP – Checks all tables file group for any damage.

What is a Linked Server?
Linked Servers is a concept in SQL Server by which we can add other SQL Server to a Group and query both the SQL Server dbs using T-SQL Statements. With a linked server, you can create very clean, easy to follow, SQL statements that allow remote data to be retrieved, joined and combined with local data.
Storped Procedure sp_addlinkedserver, sp_addlinkedsrvlogin will be used add new Linked Server.

What is Collation?
Collation refers to a set of rules that determine how data is sorted and compared. Character data is sorted using rules that define the correct character sequence, with options for specifying case-sensitivity, accent marks, kana character types and character width.

What are different type of Collation Sensitivity?
Case sensitivity
A and a, B and b, etc.

Accent sensitivity
a and á, o and ó, etc.

Kana Sensitivity
When Japanese kana characters Hiragana and Katakana are treated differently, it is called Kana sensitive.

Width sensitivity
When a single-byte character (half-width) and the same character when represented as a double-byte character (full-width) are treated differently then it is width sensitive.

What’s the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn’t allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.

How to implement one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many relationships while designing tables?
One-to-One relationship can be implemented as a single table and rarely as two tables with primary and foreign key relationships.
One-to-Many relationships are implemented by splitting the data into two tables with primary key and foreign key relationships.
Many-to-Many relationships are implemented using a junction table with the keys from both the tables forming the composite primary key of the junction table.

Complete Series of SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Introduction
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 2
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 3
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 4
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 5
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 6
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers Complete List Download

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1

SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
Print Book Available (207 Pages) | Sample Chapters

UPDATE : Interview Questions and Answers are now updated with SQL Server 2008 Questions and its answers. New Location : SQL Server 2008 Interview Questions and Answers.

What is RDBMS?
Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) are database management systems that maintain data records and indices in tables. Relationships may be created and maintained across and among the data and tables. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables. Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers. This allows a high degree of data independence. An RDBMS has the capability to recombine the data items from different files, providing powerful tools for data usage.

What is normalization?
Database normalization is a data design and organization process applied to data structures based on rules that help build relational databases. In relational database design, the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy. Normalization usually involves dividing a database into two or more tables and defining relationships between the tables. The objective is to isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the database via the defined relationships.

What are different normalization forms?

1NF: Eliminate Repeating Groups
Make a separate table for each set of related attributes, and give each table a primary key. Each field contains at most one value from its attribute domain.
2NF: Eliminate Redundant Data
If an attribute depends on only part of a multi-valued key, remove it to a separate table.
3NF: Eliminate Columns Not Dependent On Key
If attributes do not contribute to a description of the key, remove them to a separate table.
All attributes must be directly dependent on the primary key
BCNF: Boyce-Codd Normal Form
If there are non-trivial dependencies between candidate key attributes, separate them out into distinct tables.
4NF: Isolate Independent Multiple Relationships
No table may contain two or more 1:n or n:m relationships that are not directly related.
5NF: Isolate Semantically Related Multiple Relationships
There may be practical constrains on information that justify separating logically related many-to-many relationships.
ONF: Optimal Normal Form
A model limited to only simple (elemental) facts, as expressed in Object Role Model notation.
DKNF: Domain-Key Normal Form
A model free from all modification anomalies.

Remember, these normalization guidelines are cumulative. For a database to be in 3NF, it must first fulfill all the criteria of a 2NF and 1NF database.

What is Stored Procedure?
A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored in the server database. Stored procedures accept input parameters so that a single procedure can be used over the network by several clients using different input data. And when the procedure is modified, all clients automatically get the new version. Stored procedures reduce network traffic and improve performance. Stored procedures can be used to help ensure the integrity of the database.
e.g. sp_helpdb, sp_renamedb, sp_depends etc.

What is Trigger?
A trigger is a SQL procedure that initiates an action when an event (INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE) occurs. Triggers are stored in and managed by the DBMS.Triggers are used to maintain the referential integrity of data by changing the data in a systematic fashion. A trigger cannot be called or executed; the DBMS automatically fires the trigger as a result of a data modification to the associated table. Triggers can be viewed as similar to stored procedures in that both consist of procedural logic that is stored at the database level. Stored procedures, however, are not event-drive and are not attached to a specific table as triggers are. Stored procedures are explicitly executed by invoking a CALL to the procedure while triggers are implicitly executed. In addition, triggers can also execute stored procedures.
Nested Trigger: A trigger can also contain INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE logic within itself, so when the trigger is fired because of data modification it can also cause another data modification, thereby firing another trigger. A trigger that contains data modification logic within itself is called a nested trigger.

What is View?
A simple view can be thought of as a subset of a table. It can be used for retrieving data, as well as updating or deleting rows. Rows updated or deleted in the view are updated or deleted in the table the view was created with. It should also be noted that as data in the original table changes, so does data in the view, as views are the way to look at part of the original table. The results of using a view are not permanently stored in the database. The data accessed through a view is actually constructed using standard T-SQL select command and can come from one to many different base tables or even other views.

What is Index?
An index is a physical structure containing pointers to the data. Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table, and each index is given a name. The users cannot see the indexes, they are just used to speed up queries. Effective indexes are one of the best ways to improve performance in a database application. A table scan happens when there is no index available to help a query. In a table scan SQL Server examines every row in the table to satisfy the query results. Table scans are sometimes unavoidable, but on large tables, scans have a terrific impact on performance.

Clustered indexes define the physical sorting of a database table’s rows in the storage media. For this reason, each database table may have only one clustered index.
Non-clustered indexes are created outside of the database table and contain a sorted list of references to the table itself.

Complete Series of SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers -Introduction
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 2
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 3
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 4
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 5
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers – Part 6
SQL Server Interview Questions and Answers Complete List Download

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL SERVER – FIX : Error 15023: User already exists in current database.

Error 15023: User already exists in current database.

1) This is the best Solution.
First of all run following T-SQL Query in Query Analyzer. This will return all the existing users in database in result pan.
USE YourDB
GO
EXEC sp_change_users_login 'Report'
GO

Run following T-SQL Query in Query Analyzer to associate login with the username. ‘Auto_Fix’ attribute will create the user in SQL Server instance if it does not exist. In following example ‘ColdFusion’ is UserName, ‘cf’ is Password. Auto-Fix links a user entry in the sysusers table in the current database to a login of the same name in sysxlogins.
USE YourDB
GO
EXEC sp_change_users_login 'Auto_Fix', 'ColdFusion', NULL, 'cf'
GO

Run following T-SQL Query in Query Analyzer to associate login with the username. ‘Update_One’ links the specified user in the current database to login. login must already exist. user and login must be specified. password must be NULL or not specified
USE YourDB
GO
EXEC sp_change_users_login 'update_one', 'ColdFusion', 'ColdFusion'
GO

2) If login account has permission to drop other users, run following T-SQL in Query Analyzer. This will drop the user.
USE YourDB
GO
EXEC sp_dropuser 'ColdFusion'
GO

Create the same user again in the database without any error.

Stored Procedure 1:
/*Following Stored Procedure will fix all the Orphan users in database
by mapping them to username already exist for user on server.
This SP is required when user has been created at server level but does
not show up as user in database.*/
CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.spDBA_FixOrphanUsers
AS
DECLARE
@username VARCHAR(25)
DECLARE GetOrphanUsers CURSOR
FOR
SELECT
UserName = name
FROM sysusers
WHERE issqluser = 1
AND (sid IS NOT NULL
AND
sid <> 0x0)
AND
SUSER_SNAME(sid) IS NULL
ORDER BY name
OPEN GetOrphanUsers
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
IF
@username='dbo'
EXEC sp_changedbowner 'sa'
ELSE
EXEC
sp_change_users_login 'update_one', @username, @username
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
END
CLOSE
GetOrphanUsers
DEALLOCATE GetOrphanUsers
GO

Stored Procedure 2:
/*Following Stored Procedure will fix all the Orphan users in database
by creating the server level user selecting same password as username.
Make sure that you change all the password once users are created*/
CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.spDBA_FixOrphanUsersPassWord
AS
DECLARE
@username VARCHAR(25)
DECLARE @password VARCHAR(25)
DECLARE GetOrphanUsers CURSOR
FOR
SELECT
UserName = name
FROM sysusers
WHERE issqluser = 1
AND (sid IS NOT NULL
AND
sid <> 0x0)
AND
SUSER_SNAME(sid) IS NULL
ORDER BY name
OPEN GetOrphanUsers
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
SET @password = @username
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
IF
@username='dbo'
EXEC sp_changedbowner 'sa'
ELSE
EXEC
sp_change_users_login 'Auto_Fix', @username, NULL, @password
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
END
CLOSE
GetOrphanUsers
DEALLOCATE GetOrphanUsers
GO

Stored Procedure 3:
----Following Stored Procedure will drop all the Orphan users in database.
----If you need any of those users, you can create them again.
CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.spDBA_DropOrphanUsers
AS
DECLARE
@username VARCHAR(25)
DECLARE GetOrphanUsers CURSOR
FOR
SELECT
UserName = name
FROM sysusers
WHERE issqluser = 1
AND (sid IS NOT NULL
AND
sid <> 0x0)
AND
SUSER_SNAME(sid) IS NULL
ORDER BY name
OPEN GetOrphanUsers
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
IF
@username='dbo'
EXEC sp_changedbowner 'sa'
ELSE
EXEC
sp_dropuser @username
FETCH NEXT
FROM GetOrphanUsers
INTO @username
END
CLOSE
GetOrphanUsers
DEALLOCATE GetOrphanUsers
GO

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com )

SQL SERVER – ReIndexing Database Tables and Update Statistics on Tables

SQL SERVER 2005 uses ALTER INDEX syntax to reindex database. SQL SERVER 2005 supports DBREINDEX but it will be deprecated in future versions.

When any data modification operations (INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements) table fragmentation can occur. DBCC DBREINDEX statement can be used to rebuild all the indexes on all the tables in database. DBCC DBREINDEX is efficient over dropping and recreating indexes.

Execution of Stored Procedure sp_updatestats at the end of the Indexes process ensures updating stats of the database.

Method 1: My Preference

USE MyDatabase
GO
EXEC sp_MSforeachtable @command1="print '?' DBCC DBREINDEX ('?', ' ', 80)"
GO
EXEC sp_updatestats
GO

Method 2:

USE MyDatabase
GO
CREATE PROCEDURE spUtil_ReIndexDatabase_UpdateStats
AS
DECLARE
@MyTable VARCHAR(255)
DECLARE myCursor
CURSOR FOR
SELECT
table_name
FROM information_schema.tables
WHERE table_type = 'base table'
OPEN myCursor
FETCH NEXT
FROM myCursor INTO @MyTable
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
PRINT
'Reindexing Table:  ' + @MyTable
DBCC DBREINDEX(@MyTable, '', 80)
FETCH NEXT
FROM myCursor INTO @MyTable
END
CLOSE
myCursor
DEALLOCATE myCursor
EXEC sp_updatestats
GO

Reference: Pinal Dave (http://www.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL SERVER – Simple Example of Cursor

UPDATE: For working example using AdventureWorks visit : SQL SERVER – Simple Example of Cursor – Sample Cursor Part 2

This is the simplest example of the SQL Server Cursor. I have used this all the time for any use of Cursor in my T-SQL.
DECLARE @AccountID INT
DECLARE
@getAccountID CURSOR
SET
@getAccountID = CURSOR FOR
SELECT
Account_ID
FROM Accounts
OPEN @getAccountID
FETCH NEXT
FROM @getAccountID INTO @AccountID
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
PRINT
@AccountID
FETCH NEXT
FROM @getAccountID INTO @AccountID
END
CLOSE
@getAccountID
DEALLOCATE @getAccountID

Reference: Pinal Dave (http://www.SQLAuthority.com), BOL

SQL SERVER – Cursor to Kill All Process in Database

When you run the script please make sure that you run it in different database then the one you want all the processes to be killed.

CREATE TABLE #TmpWho
(spid INT, ecid INT, status VARCHAR(150), loginame VARCHAR(150),
hostname VARCHAR(150), blk INT, dbname VARCHAR(150), cmd VARCHAR(150))
INSERT INTO #TmpWho
EXEC sp_who
DECLARE @spid INT
DECLARE
@tString VARCHAR(15)
DECLARE @getspid CURSOR
SET
@getspid =   CURSOR FOR
SELECT
spid
FROM #TmpWho
WHERE dbname = 'mydb'OPEN @getspid
FETCH NEXT FROM @getspid INTO @spid
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
SET
@tString = 'KILL ' + CAST(@spid AS VARCHAR(5))
EXEC(@tString)
FETCH NEXT FROM @getspid INTO @spid
END
CLOSE
@getspid
DEALLOCATE @getspid
DROP TABLE #TmpWho
GO

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

SQL SERVER – Simple Cursor to Select Tables in Database with Static Prefix and Date Created

Following cursor query runs through database and find all the table with certain prefixed (‘b_’,’delete_’). It also checks if the Table is more than certain days old or created before certain days, it will delete it. We can have any other opertation on that table like delete, print or reindex.

SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE
@lcl_name VARCHAR(100)
DECLARE cur_name CURSOR FOR
SELECT
name
FROM sysobjects
WHERE type = 'U'
AND crdate <= DATEADD(m,-1,GETDATE())
AND
name LIKE 'b_%'
OPEN cur_name
FETCH NEXT FROM cur_name INTO @lcl_name
WHILE @@Fetch_status = 0
BEGIN
SELECT
@lcl_name = 'sp_depends ' +@lcl_name
PRINT @lcl_name
--  EXEC (@lcl_name )
FETCH NEXT FROM cur_name INTO @lcl_name
END
CLOSE
cur_name
DEALLOCATE cur_name
SET NOCOUNT OFF

Reference: Pinal Dave (http://www.SQLAuthority.com)