# SQL SERVER – Interesting Interview Questions

Today at my organization we had nearly 30 interviews scheduled of DBA and .NET developers. I really enjoyed participating in interviewing panel. It was really fun to ask questions and learn so many new things from developers. I will share few of my experience with candidates here.

Those who are scheduled for interview with me next week this is one question I will be sure asking you besides questions from my interview questions and answer series.

Question: If we have following table, please write script to display output below.

 TableName: StudentsEnroll Students Class1 Class2 Class3 Student1 1 0 1 Student2 1 1 1 Student3 0 1 0 Student4 1 0 1

Output:

 Class1 has 3 Students Class2 has 2 Students Class3 has 3 Students

Solution:

Create same data -

```USE DATABASE GO```

CREATE TABLE [StudentsEnroll] (
[Students] [varchar] (50) CONSTRAINT [DF_StudentsEnroll_Students] DEFAULT (),
[Class1] [bit] NOT NULL CONSTRAINT [DF_StudentsEnroll_Class1] DEFAULT (0),
[Class2] [bit] NOT NULL CONSTRAINT [DF_StudentsEnroll_Class2] DEFAULT (0),
[Class3] [bit] NOT NULL CONSTRAINT [DF_StudentsEnroll_Class3] DEFAULT (0)
)
ON [PRIMARY]
GO
INSERT INTO StudentsEnroll (Students, Class1, Class2, Class3)
VALUES (‘Student1′, 1, 0, 1)
GO
INSERT INTO StudentsEnroll (Students, Class1, Class2, Class3)
VALUES (‘Student2′, 1, 1, 1)
GO
INSERT INTO StudentsEnroll (Students, Class1, Class2, Class3)
VALUES (‘Student3′, 0, 1, 0)
GO
INSERT INTO StudentsEnroll (Students, Class1, Class2, Class3)
VALUES (‘Student4′, 1, 0, 1)
GO

Solution 1 – Using only SELECT statement

```DECLARE @Col INT SET @Col = 1 WHILE (@Col < 4) BEGIN EXEC('SELECT     ''Class'+@Col+' Has '' + CAST(COUNT(Students) AS VARCHAR(100)) + '' Students'' Results FROM         studentsenroll WHERE         Class'+@Col+' = 1 GROUP BY      Class'+@Col) SET @Col = @Col + 1 CONTINUE END```

Solution 2 – Getting results in one resultset

```SELECT 'Class1 has ' + CAST(COUNT(*) AS VARCHAR(10)) +' Students' FROM StudentsEnroll WHERE Class1 = 1 GROUP BY Class1 UNION ALL SELECT 'Class2 has ' + CAST(COUNT(*) AS VARCHAR(10)) +' Students' FROM StudentsEnroll WHERE Class2 = 1 GROUP BY Class2 UNION ALL SELECT 'Class3 has ' + CAST(COUNT(*) AS VARCHAR(10)) +' Students' FROM StudentsEnroll WHERE Class3 = 1 GROUP BY Class3```

If you know any other method or script to achieve the same result, please share here with your friends.

Reference : Pinal Dave (http://blog.SQLAuthority.com)

## 37 thoughts on “SQL SERVER – Interesting Interview Questions”

1. Zod |

DECLARE @Class1 int, @Class2 int, @Class3 int,
@Class1Total int, @Class2Total int, @Class3Total int
SET @Class1Total = 0
SET @Class2Total = 0
SET @Class3Total = 0

DECLARE student_CURSOR CURSOR FOR
SELECT Class1, Class2, Class3
FROM StudentsEnroll

OPEN student_CURSOR

FETCH next FROM student_CURSOR
INTO @Class1, @Class2, @Class3

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
SET @Class1Total = @Class1Total + @Class1
SET @Class2Total = @Class2Total + @Class2
SET @Class3Total = @Class3Total + @Class3

FETCH next FROM student_CURSOR
INTO @Class1, @Class2, @Class3
END

CLOSE student_CURSOR
DEALLOCATE student_CURSOR

SELECT ‘Class1 has ‘ + cast(@Class1Total AS varchar(10)) + ‘ students’
UNION ALL
SELECT ‘Class2 has ‘ + cast(@Class2Total AS varchar(10)) + ‘ students’
UNION ALL
SELECT ‘Class3 has ‘ + cast(@Class3Total AS varchar(10)) + ‘ students’

Do I get the job? Haaaa.

2. Eric |

How about a 1 liner?

select
‘Class1 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast([Class1] as int)) as varchar(10)) + ‘ students.\n’
+ ‘Class2 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast([Class2] as int)) as varchar(10)) + ‘ students.\n’
+ ‘Class3 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast([Class3] as int)) as varchar(10)) + ‘ students.\n’
from [StudentsEnroll];

3. Eric |

In case there is a chance that the number of classes may change over time, here is a dynamic approach:

declare @cls nvarchar(100);
declare c cursor fast_forward for
select
c.name
from
sys.columns c
inner join sys.tables t
on c.object_id = t.object_id
where
t.[name] = ‘StudentsEnroll’
and c.[name] ‘Students’;

open c;
fetch next from c into @cls;
while @@fetch_status = 0
begin
declare @cmd nvarchar(500);
set @cmd = ‘select ”’ + @cls + ‘ has ” + cast(count([Students]) as varchar(10)) + ” students.”’
+ ‘ from [StudentsEnroll] where [' + @cls + '] 0 group by [' + @cls + ']‘;
print @cmd;
exec sp_sqlexec @cmd;
fetch next from c into @cls;
end
close c;
deallocate c;

4. Zod and Eric

Very nice.

Eric – particularly the one liner approach is the one I am looking for from developers.

When they get that one, I ask them follow up question as what happens if number of class is dynamic.

Very good.

Regards,
Pinal

5. Why not juse use a pivot? If you’d like, I can write the query.

• Absolutely, that is smart way to do this. If you can please provide query for all the blog readers.
I was waiting for someone to suggest PIVOT.

Kind Regards,
Pinal Dave

6. Dave |

It amazes me that people are still using cursors as their first answer to everything… the are a very (very!) few situations were one may argue a cursor is applicable, this is most certainly not one of them. If Zod provided that as an answer, I would end the interview right there.
Besides that, the schema in the original question is flawed. How about bonus points to the interviewee that points out that it is a bad design to have classes listed columnwise like this. Having to do dynamic sql to get around this design flaw is only a “good” answer if somehow you’re stuck with a bad schema.

7. Imran Mohammed |

@Pinal

select CLASS+ ‘ has ‘+convert(varchar(10),count(orders ))+’ Students ‘ ‘Output’ from (
SELECT students, Class, Orders
FROM
(SELECT students, class1, class2,class3
FROM studentsenroll ) p
UNPIVOT
(Orders FOR Class IN
(class1, class2, class3 )
)AS unpvt) X where orders = 1 group by class

Thanks,
IM

8. Zod |

If Zod provided that as an answer, I would end the interview right there.

Uh, Pinal asked for other ways to do it, not the best way to do it. So, if you were giving the interview, I think I’d walk out right here since you didn’t understand Pinal’s question. ;-)

DECLARE @opXml as XML

SET @opXml = ‘<ClassStud value=”‘ + REPLACE(
(SELECT
‘Class1 has ‘ + CAST(SUM(CAST(Class1 AS SMALLINT)) AS VARCHAR(4)) + ‘ students’ ,
‘,Class2 has ‘ + CAST(SUM(CAST(Class2 AS SMALLINT)) AS VARCHAR(4)) + ‘ students’ ,
‘,Class3 has ‘ + CAST(SUM(CAST(Class3 AS SMALLINT)) AS VARCHAR(4)) + ‘ students’
FROM [StudentsEnroll]
FOR XML PATH(”) ), ‘,’, ‘” /><ClassStud value=”‘) + ‘” />’

SELECT x.value(‘@value’, ‘varchar(100)’) AS [output]
FROM @opXml.nodes(‘/ClassStud’) as p(x)

10. fly |

declare @tbl table (i int)
insert into @tbl (i)
select 1
union
select 2
union
select 3

select
case when i = 1 then ‘Class 1 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast (class1 as int)) as varchar(100)) + ‘ Students’ else
case when i = 2 then ‘Class 2 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast (class2 as int)) as varchar(100)) + ‘ Students’ else
case when i = 3 then ‘Class 3 has ‘ + cast(sum(cast (class3 as int)) as varchar(100)) + ‘ Students’ else ” end
end
end
from [StudentsEnroll]
join @tbl t on i <= 3
group by i

11. John |

I’d be concerned about any organisation that asked a question like that. The table design is terrible, and if it was more normalized, there wouldn’t be any need to come up with clever solutions.

Of course, if the question asked how you would improve the schema and then return the output that would be acceptable.

Take this question as T-SQL practice exam rather than schema improvement problem.

In my organization we do not ask this simple question for Schema improvement. Normalization is important but in data warehousing and BI de-normalization is equally important.

Hope this clear now and waiting for more T-SQL solution to this problem.

Everybody who participated here – Thanks I really see good suggestions.

Kind Regards,
Pinal Dave

13. Prakash |

Hi all,
Good to see you here and very very thanks for sharing the knowledge.

So anyone can u please tell me about the difference between table variables and the cursors..

which is good one and where??

Thanks
Regards Prakash

14. select ‘class1 has ‘ + cast((select count(*) from StudentsEnroll where class1=1 group by class1) as char(3)) + ‘Students’
union
select ‘class2 has ‘ + cast((select count(*) from StudentsEnroll where class2=1 group by class2) as char(3)) + ‘Students’
union
select ‘class3 has ‘ + cast((select count(*) from StudentsEnroll where class3=1 group by class3) as char(3)) + ‘Students’

15. Thanks for the nice tricks.

16. mumu |

Imran is correct in that PIVOT is not the answer (as surmised) but UNPIVOT.

Here’s a bit cleaner version of UNPIVOT that is closer to the asked for end result…

SELECT Class,
CAST(‘has’ as char(3)) as ‘has’,
SUM(CAST(Breakout as tinyint)) as ‘X’,
CAST(‘students.’ as char(9)) as ‘students.’
FROM (

SELECT Class, Breakout, Students FROM
(
SELECT Students, Class1, Class2, Class3
FROM StudentsEnroll
) se_inner
UNPIVOT (Breakout FOR Class IN (Class1, Class2, Class3)) AS denorm
) se_outer
GROUP BY Class ORDER BY Class

hi i am new to sql server and its very intresting to see such good questions.
i would participate int hese discussions and post my comments for the queries.

Thanks

hi pinal,
I am a beginner in sql server…can u give me any suggestions in his regard..

Thanks

19. Harshal |

SELECT ‘Class1 has ‘+ CONVERT(nvarchar(10),sum(CASE class1 WHEN 1 THEN 1 ELSE 0 end))+’ students’
FROM StudentsEnroll se union ALL
SELECT ‘Class2 has ‘+ CONVERT(nvarchar(10),sum(CASE class2 WHEN 1 THEN 1 ELSE 0 end))+’ students’
FROM StudentsEnroll se union ALL
SELECT ‘Class3 has ‘+ CONVERT(nvarchar(10),sum(CASE class3 WHEN 1 THEN 1 ELSE 0 end))+’ students’
FROM StudentsEnroll se

20. cvdev |

SELECT ‘Class1 Has ‘+CAST(SUM(CAST(Class1 AS INT)) AS VARCHAR(10))+’ Students’+CHAR(10)+
‘Class2 Has ‘+CAST(SUM(CAST(Class2 AS INT)) AS VARCHAR(10))+’ Students’+CHAR(10)+
‘Class3 Has ‘+CAST(SUM(CAST(Class3 AS INT)) AS VARCHAR(10))+’ Students’+CHAR(10)
FROM [StudentsEnroll]

21. meh |

SELECT
UP.Class + ‘ has ‘ + CONVERT(varchar, SUM(CONVERT(int, UP.Total))) + ‘ Students’ [Output]
FROM
(
SELECT
Students [Enrolled],
Class1,
Class2,
Class3
FROM
StudentsEnroll
) SE
UNPIVOT (Total FOR Class IN (Class1, Class2, Class3)) UP
GROUP BY
UP.Class

22. Hi Pinal,

I am a beginner in SQL can you please give me suggestion as to how i can improve on it?.
I am very much interested in learning SQL Server.

Thanks,
Jerry

23. Anu |

Hi Pinal,
This place is really gud for all the issues related to sql.
I just saw the query above so just tried this way

select ‘Class1 has ‘ + cast(count(nullif(class1,0))as varchar(10)) +’ students’ from StudentsEnroll union
select ‘Class2 has ‘+ cast(count(nullif(class2,0))as varchar(10)) + ‘ students’ from StudentsEnroll union
select ‘Class3 has ‘+cast(count(nullif(class3,0))as varchar(10)) +’ students’from StudentsEnroll

Its the same way as you have written i have just modified the query by using NULLIF so where clause would’nt be used.

24. Kode |

declare @count int
declare @name varchar(30)
declare @stmt nvarchar(500)
set @stmt = ”
select @count = count(*) from sys.columns where object_id = object_id(‘studentsenroll’) and name ‘Students’
Declare c1 cursor
For select Name From sys.columns where object_id = object_id(‘studentsenroll’) and name ‘Students’
Open c1
fetch next from c1 into @name
while @@fetch_status = 0
Begin
if ( @count > 1)
set @stmt = @stmt + ‘select ”’ + @name + ‘ has ” + cast(sum(cast(‘ + @name + ‘ as int)) as varchar) +” students ” From studentsenroll union all ‘
else
set @stmt = @stmt + ‘select ”’ + @name + ‘ has ” + cast(sum(cast(‘ + @name + ‘ as int)) as varchar) +” students ” From studentsenroll ‘
SET @count = @count-1
fetch next from c1 into @name
End
exec sp_executesql @stmt
close c1
deallocate c1

25. RakeshA |

create table xs(sname nvarchar(5),class1 int,class2 int,class3 int)

insert into xs values(‘stu1′,1,0,1)
insert into xs values(‘stu2′,1,0,1)
insert into xs values(‘stu3′,0,1,0)
insert into xs values(‘stu4′,1,0,1)

select sname+’has ‘+ cast((class1+class2+class3) as nvarchar(10))+’students’ from xs

26. Sandor |

select classname + ‘ has ‘ + Cast(total As Nvarchar(2)) + ‘ students’ from
(
select
sum(class1) class1,
sum(class2) class2,
sum(class3) class3
from studentsenroll
) p
unpivot
( Total for classname in (class1,class2,class3)) as S

27. Lopa |

Hi Pinal,

You are doing a great job.

I may sound low, but could you please explain me the where clause of the above query. Why the class+’@col’ value is always constant?

Thanks,
Lopa

28. Hi Lopa,

In expression class + ‘@col’ what is class and what is value in @col? Please provide details about your query.

Regards,
Pinal Dave

29. Lopa |

Probably I’m asking this doubt very late.

You asked to write a query about student enrollment where there are three classes ; Class1 , Class2 and Class3 and 4 students as Student1, Student2, Student3 and Student4. And there is a table StudentEnroll which has the data which depicts which student is enrolled to which class.

The format of the output should be The Class 1 has 3 students and so on; for all the classes.

You have provided the followin solution

DECLARE @Col INT
SET @Col = 1
WHILE (@Col < 4)
BEGIN
EXEC('SELECT ''Class'+@Col+' Has '' + CAST(COUNT(Students) AS VARCHAR(100)) + '' Students'' Results
FROM studentsenroll
WHERE Class'+@Col+' = 1
GROUP BY Class'+@Col)
SET @Col = @Col + 1
CONTINUE
END

Now, I can understand that you are considering only those students who have been enrolled and that's the reason the class'+@col+' = 1 is a constant value.

This can be easily done by using the Sum function. But, you have mentioned that if the scenario is dynamic then we have to use the Group By function. Could you please explain me the Dynamic scenario.

I'm sorry if I sound stupid.

Regards,
Lopa

30. INDIA |

declare @total int
set @total =0
select ‘CLASS 1 HAS ‘ + case when class1=1 then CAST (SUM(@total+1)AS VARCHAR(10)) + ‘ STUDENTS’ end from StudentsEnroll
WHERE Class1 =1
group by Class1
UNION ALL

select ‘CLASS 2 HAS ‘ + case when class2=1 then CAST (SUM(@total+1)AS VARCHAR(10)) + ‘ STUDENTS’ end from StudentsEnroll
WHERE Class2 =1
group by Class2

UNION ALL

select ‘CLASS 3 HAS ‘ + case when class3=1 then CAST (SUM(@total+1)AS VARCHAR(10)) + ‘ STUDENTS’ end from StudentsEnroll
WHERE Class3 =1
group by Class3

31. INDIA |

thanks pinal for providing good platform for learing
sql

this site very helpful for me

keep it up……

32. Nikash |

select ‘student1 has’+ CONVERT(varchar(10), SUM(class1) )+’staudent’
from StudentsEnroll

union all

select ‘student2 has’+ CONVERT(varchar(10), SUM(class2) ) +’staudent’
from StudentsEnroll

union all

select ‘student3 has’+ CONVERT(varchar(10), SUM(class3)) +’staudent’
from StudentsEnroll